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English Grammar Questions and Answers for all Examinations - Phase 3 Test 1 Comprehension


English Grammar Questions and Answers for all Examinations - Phase 3 Test 1 Comprehension


ENGLISH GRAMMAR QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

PHASE 3 TEST 1 - COMPREHENSION



Answer the following questions according to the text.
In an interview yesterday Mr. Wilson was questioned about the harmful effects of horror movies on teenagers. He argued that such effects were often exaggerated and claimed that other types of films were far more dangerous for young people. When asked to prove this, he pointed out that horror films were often set in unreal situations and were clearly not to be taken seriously. In contrast, he claimed that films showing violent crime were often set in everyday life, and were therefore more damaging.
1. In Mr. Wilson’s opinion, horror films _____.
A) cost more than other kinds of films. B) are more popular among the elderly than among the young. C) should be banned altogether. D) are less damaging to young people that films of violent crime. E) have recently ceased to appeal to the young.
2. For Mr. Wilson the main difference between a horror film and one showing violent crime is that the former _____.
A) is mainly concerned with everyday situations. B) is liked by the young, and the latter by the old. C) is unrelated to real life, whereas the latter is. D) is less expensive to produce than the latter. E) rarely receives any attention from the young.
3. The interviewer wanted to find out whether _____.
A) young people were being harmed by horror films. B) Mr. Wilson had himself been affected by horror films. C) Mr. Wilson preferred horror films to films of violence. D) people were seriously objecting to horror films. E) the effects of crime films were being exaggerated.
The famous Tower of London was built as a fortress by William the Conqueror.  Early in the Middle Ages the kings used it as a palace; later on it was turned into a prison, but only distinguished prisoners, including statesmen and princes, were held there.  Today the Tower is a national museum, where, among other things, the jewelry of the English kings and queens is on display.
4. It is obvious from the passage that the functions of the Tower of London _____.
A) were all established by William the Conqueror. B) have always been controlled by the kings. C) have varied greatly over the centuries. D) are all of a military nature. E) have not changed at all since the Middle Ages.
5. We learn from the passage that the Tower _____.
A) was not originally intended to be a fortress. B) was never a prison for ordinary people. C)    is still a unique example of medieval architecture. D) was never a residence of English kings. E) functions today only as a jewelers museum.
6. William the Conqueror’s original purpose in building the Tower of London _____.
A) was one of defense B) was to exhibit his valuable jewellery. C) was strongly criticized later in the Middle Ages. D) remains unknown even now. E) is still being debated among historians.
Never before in history have people been so aware of what is going on in the world.  Television, newspapers and radio keep us continually informed and stimulate our interest.  The sociologist’s interest in the world around him is intense, for society is his field of study.  Indeed, he needs to know what is happening in society; he wants to know what makes the social world what it is, how it is organized, why it changes in the ways that it does.  Such knowledge is valuable not only for those who make great decisions, but also for you, since this is the world in which you live and make your way.
7. The passage emphasizes that whatever goes on in the world today _____.
A) is quickly forgotten by the majority. B) only concerns the sociologist. C) first makes the headlines in the press. D) is of great interest to everyone. E) can easily be ignored by people in power.
8. It is pointed out in the passage that, among other things, sociologists are very much interested in _____.
A) our reaction to their studies. B) the effect of television on education. C) the reasons for social change. D) how people make a living in the world. E) environmental problems.
9. One may conclude from the passage that the studies made by sociologists _____.
A) are extremely useful both to decision makers and to ordinary people. B) are of little general interest. C) receive a lot of attention from the media. D) are primarily intended for students of sociology. E) do not adequately reflect real conditions in the world.
Every summer many people, girls and women as well as boys and men, try to swim from England to France or from France to England. The distance at the nearest points is only about twenty miles, but because of the strong currents the distance that must be swum is usually twice as far.  The first man to succeed in swimming across the Channel was Captain Webb, an Englishman.  This was in August 1875. He landed in France 21 hours 45 minutes after entering the water at Dover. Since then there have been many successful swims and the time has been shortened.  One French swimmer crossed in 11 hours and 5 minutes.
10. Swimming the Channel is not as easy as it might seem _____.
A) as the distance between the two counties is far too much. B) and it always takes more or less 20 hours. C) and only two people have managed to do it so far. D) so few people even try to swim it. E) for there are very strong currents.
11. The first time anyone swam across the Channel _____.
A) was in the last century. B) was when England and France organized a swimming competition. C) no one really believed him. D) he was helped by favorable currents. E) he reached Dover just before 10 in the evening.
12. The time Captain Webb needed to swim across the Channel _____.
A) was unbelievably short. B) has since been nearly reduced to half C) still remains a record. D) was thought to be far too long. E) hasn’t been equaled by any French swimmer.
A new discovery of a dinosaur fossil in Antarctica has confirmed the idea that dinosaurs lived not only in the Northern Hemisphere but in the Southern Hemisphere as well.  Up until this discovery, scientists had found dinosaur remains on every continent except Antarctica.  This new discovery now confirms the idea that dinosaurs were distributed worldwide.  If the dinosaur fossil is shown to be related to other dinosaurs of the same period in South America, it will also support the idea that South America and Antarctica were once linked together.
13. It is only recently that _____.
A) important scientific studies about the Southern Hemisphere have been carried out. B) scientists have been seriously interested in fossils. C) a dinosaur fossil has been discovered in Antarctica. D) some new facts about the Northern Hemisphere have come to light. E) Antarctica has been discovered.
14. One can understand from the passage that _____.
A) dinosaurs, at one time in the past, lived in both hemispheres. B) dinosaurs were in fact, more commonly found in the Southern Hemisphere. C) scientists had long since realized that dinosaurs had actually lived in Antarctica. D) the dinosaur fossil, discovered in Antarctica, was significantly different from those found in other continents. E) the discovery of the dinosaur fossil in Antarctica was actually of little importance to scientists.
15. It is hoped that the discovery of the dinosaur fossil in Antarctica _____.
A) would contribute significantly to our knowledge of the Northern Hemisphere. B) will throw further light on the existence of dinosaurs in the past. C) would lead to further similar discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere. D) could answer the question whether South America and Antarctica were originally connected. E) will attract more scientists to this type of work
A popular method of treating frozen fingers and toes in very cold, even freezing weather is to slowly rewarm them or rub them with snow. The best treatment, however, is not slow rewarming but rapid rewarming. Putting the frozen fingers or toes in a warm bath or using a hot water bottle are both good ways to treat them. Hot drinks to warm the body from within are also helpful. One must be careful about burning the skin, however. The temperature of any heat applied should not be greater than 43 C.
16. The main concern of the passage is _____.
A) why frozen fingers and toes should be slowly rewarmed. B) how to keep adequately warm in the winter. C) how to treat fingers and toes that have been frozen. D) the dangers of freezing weather for the body. E) why one should have plenty of hot drinks in winter.
17. It is pointed out in the passage that _____.
A) the use of hot water bottles to rewarm the body is not advisable. B) one should try to rewarm frozen fingers and toes fairly rapidly. C) in rewarming the body the higher the temperature the better the result is. D) people should be warned not to go out in freezingly cold weather. E) one should take a bath as often as possible in winter.
18. The author warns that _____.
A) the minimum temperature required is 43 C. B) in rewarming the body, care must be taken not to burn the skin. C) one should never rub frozen fingers and toes with snow. D) hot drinks must not be taken in immediately. E) recovery cannot be as rapid as one would expect.
Bicycling in America has been growing at an amazing rate. Bicycles used to be sold to parents for their children. Now those same parents are buying them for themselves, as well as for their children. And grandparents are cycling, too. Moreover, people don’t simply cycle for fun and for the exercise. Many young executives ride bikes to work as an alternative to adding to the pollution of cities, and to fighting traffic jams, while college and high school students find bikes an economical alternative to cars or buses.
19. In the passage it is emphasized that, in America _____.
A) more and more people of all ages are now using bicycles. B) few college students can afford to run a car. C) no executive feels he can cycle to work. D) most parents feel it is dangerous for children to cycle to school. E) a great many traffic jams are being caused by cyclists.
20. Cycling is also a hobby that _____.
A) attracts fewer and fewer people. B) is getting increasingly more expensive. C) only appeals to the young. D) has a high-accident rate. E) the whole family can enjoy.
21. From the passage we can infer that _____.
A) different people have different reasons for preferring bicycles to a car. B) most Americans can no longer afford to run a car. C) young children should not be allowed to cycle on main roads. D) a lot of parents are borrowing their children’s bicycles. E) cycling is fun in the country but not in a city.
On the day of my first piano recital, I became more and more nervous. To help me calm down, my piano teacher told me to place several cabbages in the room where I practiced. I was so eager to get over my nerves that I was willing to try anything. For the next few hours, I played to an audience of cabbages. When the time of the recital finally arrived, I was still terribly nervous. My hands felt like ice. When I finally walked across the stage, I looked out into the dark audience. I could not see anyone! All those people out there could just as easily have been cabbages. As I sat down to play, my hands relaxed. Before I knew it, I had played all my pieces without a mistake. For the first time, the cabbage heads applauded.
22. On the day of the recital the music teacher _____.
A) advised the writer to put cabbages in the room where he practiced and play for them. B) warned the writer not to look at the audience. C) had no patience with the writer because he was nervous too. D) felt nearly as nervous about the recital as the writer did. E) couldn’t think of a way of helping the writer to stay calm.
23. The writer stopped feeling nervous _____.
A) because he had practiced a great deal B) when the audience began to applaud C) before he walked onto the stage D) as soon as the concert was over E) when he found he couldn’t see the audience.
24. In the passage it is explained that _____.
A) the writer was always nervous on the day of a concert B) the writer played to some cabbages because there was no real audience C) the writer finally began to relax just before he began his recital D) the room was so cold the writer’s hands felt like ice E) the writer always practiced in a room where there were cabbages
Mountaineering has this advantage over most other sports; enjoyment depends very little indeed on natural ability or technical skill; it is a sport without winners and without losers. By all means study the technique of climbing if it interests you. But, believe me, provided you go to really good mountain country, it doesn’t much matter how you climb or what you climb. There are three things that matter; look up frequently to see the way ahead, don’t leave the holds you have until you have tested new ones; do all you can to help those climbing with you.
25. As it is pointed out in the passage, mountaineering is a sport _____.
A) in which nobody wins and nobody loses B) that is not suitable for the old C) in which technique is not easy to learn D) which can be enjoyed anywhere in the country E) that most people are interested in
26. When climbing one must _____.
A) always follow the good climbers B) be careful to check that new holds are safe before leaving old ones C) always keep to known routes D) never look back E) try to develop one’s natural abilities
27. The passage emphasizes the fact that _____.
A) the techniques of climbing are of great importance. B) there is actually not much really good climbing country C) climbing is not a team sport D) one climber should always help another E) few people really enjoy climbing
The desires of a child were naturally rather limited in the Victorian era. Toys were simple and comparatively few. There were no bicycles or mechanical models; the average child “made his own fun” from very cheap materials. Really the only shop the child dreamed of entering for his own purposes was the sweatshop. Nowadays a bewildering variety of toys, magazines and entertainment in a multitude of shops, compete for his interest and money; and the boredom of having everything ready-made leads to a constant desire for something new.
28. It is suggested in the passage that the modern child _____.
A) wishes he had been born in the Victorian era. B) suffers from boredom in spite of all the toys. C) develops his abilities by playing with toys. D) is well able to amuse himself. E) is allowed to eat too much.
29. According to the passage _____.
A) mechanical toys are essential to a child’s happiness. B) a child should not be left to “make his own fun”. C) home-made toys give more pleasure than ready-made ones. D) there was a constant desire for something new. E) simple toys slow down a child’s development.
30. The passage emphasizes _____.
A) a child should have money to spend on toys. B) the importance, in childhood, of a large choice of toys. C) how lucky the modem child is. D) that sweets are not good for the health. E) the difference between a Victorian childhood and a present-day one.
Most people were not impressed when in 1913, the Daily Mail newspaper offered 10.000 pounds to the first pilot to fly across the Atlantic in under 72 hours. The majority of scientists, even said it could not be done. Certainly the problems involved were many and far ranging. Obviously the design of the aero plane was of great importance, but so too were the skill and courage of the pilot and the navigator; weather conditions also had to be taken into consideration.  A very few enthusiasts thought it might be possible ten years later.  They were wrong. A pilot received the prize just six years later.
31. When the Daily Mail offered a prize in 1913, for flying across the Atlantic _____.
A) there were few aero planes that could stay in the air for more than 72 hours. B) many enthusiastic amateurs were eager to try. C) the majority of scientists thought it could be done. D) almost no one believed it was possible to do this within the next ten years. E) the general public were very interested in the scheme.
32. The 10.000 pounds prize offered by the Daily Mail in 1913 _____.
A) was shared by pilot and navigator B) never was won C) was won ten years later D) was received even earlier that some enthusiasts expected E) aimed at encouraging better aircraft design
33. The passage points out that _____.
A) before the Atlantic could be crossed by plane many factors had to be considered B) the prize of £10.000 was actually not worth very much C) the majority of scientists were extremely interested  in the project D) the Daily Mail was impressed by the courage of the pilot who received the prize E) weather conditions were favorable on the day of the flight.
It is a mistake to assume that “educational” programs on television are likely to be boring. In fact, as long as these programs are made in a rich and creative manner, there is no doubt that they can and do draw the attention of people, especially young people. Perhaps some of the best examples of successful educational programs are those which deal, for instance, with ancient historical sites, environmental problems, wild life, geography or the strange world at the bottom of the sea.
34. In the passage, the term ‘wild life  _____.
A) is used to indicate the behavior of young people. B) refers to animals, birds and other living beings in nature C) signifies the living conditions of primitive people D) means a large unused piece of land E) refers to prehistorically times
35. Some people seem to think that _____.
A) only those programs concerned with historical and geographical subjects can be fascinating. B) television does not give enough importance to the problems of youth C) educational programs on television are of little interest D) a lot of money is needed to make a good educational program E) young people are more interested in educational programs than their elders.
36. In the passage it is emphasized that a good educational program _____.
A) has more influence on people if it is shown on television B) should in the first place be concerned with history and biology C) should involve young people and encourage them to study the natural world D) can contribute a great deal to people’s awareness of environmental problems E) is one which is made creatively and contains a great deal of interesting material.
Nowadays, in England, tea is quite the most popular, and also the cheapest, of all drinks. People drink their tea in different ways. Some like it with sugar, some without. Some drink it with milk, some with lemon; yet, one way or another just about everyone drinks tea. This, however, has not always been the case. During the last century, when tea was very expensive, it was kept locked up, and the lady of the house had the key. Tea drinking then was quite a ceremony, reserved for the evenings. At breakfast everyone drank beer!
37. Compared with the past, in England today _____.
A) more and more people prefer tea to beer. B) tea is regarded as a luxury. C) tea is very cheap and commonly available. D) sugar is becoming less and less popular. E) people don’t care about the quality of tea.
38. It is obvious from the passage that _____.
A) English people have always regarded tea as better than beer. B) over the years the popularity of tea in England has increased tremendously. C) drinking tea with lemon is only a recent habit in England. D) like tea, beer also is an extremely popular drink. E) English people are no longer fond of ceremonies.
39. In the passage it is explained that _____.
A) in England today people have different habits of tea drinking. B) in the past in England only the wealthy were able to drink beer. C) at breakfast English people also like to drink beer. D) English people mostly prefer to have their tea in the evening. E) in England usually a ceremony is held in the family before tea is served.
Elizabeth parked the car and then went into the busy station to meet Jane who was going to spend the weekend with her. Elizabeth’s friends often came for the weekend, but there was something a little different about Jane’s visit. She and Jane hadn’t seen each other for 15 years. While at the university, they had shared a flat together for 2 years but then each had married and Jane and her husband had lived abroad a great deal. Elizabeth began to ask herself. ‘Will we even be able to recognize each other after all these years?” Right then she saw Jane walking towards her and smiling straight at her with the old unforgettable smile quite unchanged.
40. The first thing Elizabeth noticed about Jane when they met at the station was _____. A) that she had become quite old. B) how well she was looking. C) that she had not forgotten how to smile. D) her smile which had not changed. E) that she had already been married.
41. Elizabeth’s friendship with Jane _____.
A) went back to their university years. B) lasted only for two years when they were at the university. C) ended soon after they had each married. D) has always been envied by all their friends. E) found its best expression in their weekend visits to each other.
42. Elizabeth is worried _____.
A) because Jane’s husband may have changed a great deal after all these years. B) in case she won’t be able to find a place to park the car. C) about Jane and her husband who are going to live abroad. D) in case Jane will change her mind about coming for the weekend. E) in case after a separation of so many years they may both fail to recognize each other.
There was silence. Neither Mr. Mayne nor Mr. Bridge spoke. Mr. Mayne looked across at Mr. Bridge and waited. Both wanted the other to speak. Neither spoke. It was as if each felt that whoever spoke first would lose. Presently they rose together and together said: “Well I must be going.” Then they nodded slightly to each other and did indeed go. So they agreed to separate, but on both sides there was regret, for each was deeply convinced that they could have formed a business partnership that would have given them fame and wealth.
43. Mr. Mayne and Mr. Bridge scarcely spoke to each other because _____.
A) they hated each other. B) they didn’t think it was necessary. C) there was nothing to say. D) each wanted the other to start. E) they didn’t want to work together.
44. When Mr. Mayne and Mr. Bridge met, they _____.
A) were anxious to talk about their wealth. B) hoped to solve their financial problems. C) were both sure that they could have been successful partners in business. D) found they had nothing to say. E) disliked each other immediately.
45. When Mr. Mayne and Mr. Bridge separated _____.
A) each was confident that the partnership would flourish (grow). B) they both seemed relieved (relaxed). C) they agreed to meet again soon. D) both were feeling disappointed E) they were equally pleased with themselves.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s world was a world of music from the moment he was born. His father, who was a fine musician, was teaching his daughter to play the piano. Little Wolfgang used to listen to his sister as she practiced. He quickly learned the pieces she played. One day he said he wanted to play too. But he was only three years old then, and his father thought that his hands were too small. However, that evening, alone and in the dark, he played the pieces his sister had been practicing and he played them much better than her.
46. While his sister was practicing, Mozart _____.
A) usually made a lot of noise. B) used to play by himself. C) used to feel very bored. D) and his father talked about music. E) learned how to play the piano.
47. Mozart’s father didn’t believe that _____.
A) his daughter practiced often enough. B) a child of three could possibly play the piano. C) his children would ever learn to play well. D) music could be regarded as a profession. E) children could understand music well.
48. As a child, Mozart _____.
A) was hated by his father. B) was taught by his sister to play the piano. C) rarely listened to any music. D) had a great talent for music. E) used to play for his sister.
The voyage began well in calm, clear weather. As usual, the ship was crowded; most of the passengers were tourists who, after their holiday in Turkey, were now returning home. There was a great deal of fun and entertainment on board the ship. People were eating, dancing, singing and enjoying themselves. But after the sun set, the weather began to change, and the sea got rougher and rougher. Soon nearly everyone was feeling ill.
49. Most of the passengers on board the ship _____.
A) didn’t want to return home. B) hated the food they were served. C) got very sick before the storm broke out. D) knew the weather would turn so bad in the evening. E) enjoyed themselves by singing and dancing all night.
50. The passage is about _____.
A) holidays by the sea. B) a terrible storm at sea. C) the dangers of a sea voyage. D) the first day on board the ship. E) tourists in Turkey.
51. At the start of the voyage _____.
A) everyone was feeling happy. B) a lot of people were already seasick. C) everyone was looking forward to the holiday in Turkey. D) the weather was cool and windy. E) most of the tourists were complaining about the weather.
Elephants are not really very savage animals, but occasionally they can be in a very bad temper. Their most dangerous habit at such moments is to pick up, with their trunk, a large stick or stone, and throw it with great force at someone standing nearby. When this happens the only thing anyone can do, is to jump quickly out of the way.
52. When an elephant is in a bad temper _____.
A) it may try to hurt someone. B) it moves its trunk from side to side. C) one shouldn’t throw stones at it. D) one should keep perfectly still. E) it never shows it.
53. The worst thing an elephant does is to _____.
A) attack other savage animals. B) destroy everything nearby. C) use its trunk with great force. D) move dangerously fast. E) throw things at anyone close to it.
54. It is not very often that _____.
A) anyone can get close to an elephant. B) an elephant behaves in a savage manner. C) one can jump out of the way of an elephant. D) an elephant picks something up with his trunk. E) an elephant is frightened.
It was a misty morning, and there was a soft rain falling. There were only a few leaves left on the trees, but on the ground was a thick carpet of brown and yellow leaves. This was the time of year the old gardener loved best. Since he was too old to work, he used to spend his days by the window, looking out on the garden. It was no longer what it had been under his care, but still it was lovely.
55. It is obvious that _____.
A) no one cared any longer for the old gardener. B) the old gardener disliked staying indoors. C) the old gardener was as fond of his garden as ever. D) it always rained heavily there in the spring. E) the old gardener was no long interested in gardening.
56. The passage gives a description of _____.
A) the old gardener’s dislike of rain. B) the old gardener’s house. C) the change of the seasons. D) a wet morning in autumn. E) the weather in winter.
57. The garden had looked much nicer _____.
A) when he first began to work in it. B) during the summer months. C) before the winter had come. D) from the other window. E) when the old man had been looking after it.
This was the first time Mary was going to fly. It wasn’t going to be a long flight; in fact, she would be in the air just under an hour. She got to the airport an hour before the plane was expected to take off. She was very excited and also a little nervous. But before long, it was announced that her flight was going to be delayed for two hours. Suddenly she felt very disappointed and didn’t know what to do while she was waiting.
58. Mary’s flight _____.
A) left an hour early. B) was delayed for two hours. C) suddenly had to be cancelled. D) was enjoyable from the beginning to the end. E) was over far too quickly.
59. On arrival at the airport, Mary _____.
A) was calm and confident. B) expected the plane to take off in an hour. C) had to hurry to catch the plane. D) found out that her plane would take off in less than an hour. E) didn’t know how long the flight would take.
60. It was obvious from the passage that Mary _____.
A) was pleased the flight had been postponed. B) was used to traveling by air. C) nearly missed her plane. D) was afraid her flight would last for hours. E) began her first flight with a disappointment.
Bobby never keeps still. So, when his aunt saw him standing there and not moving at all, she knew something unusual was happening. She moved quietly towards him and also began to look where he seemed to be looking. Just then, in the tall grass near the fence, she saw a little bird that was too small to fly. It must have fallen out of its nest.
61. The little bird _____.
A) hid behind the fence. B) had been caught by Bobby. C) tried to fly over the fence. D) was too tired to return to its nest. E) fascinated Bobby greatly.
62. Bobby _____.
A) did a lot of things his aunt disliked. B) was not very fond of his aunt. C) called his aunt to look at the bird. D) is usually a very active child. E) knew where the nest was.
63. When the aunt saw the little bird _____.
A) she understood why Bobby had kept so still. B) she was very sad. C) she wanted to put it back in the nest. D) it was frightened of her. E) Bobby refused to give it to her.
When we arrived at the little hotel, the first thing we did was to see if it was clean. We were particularly interested in the kitchen, which was in the back of the building. There we saw large, open shelves filled with pots, pans and plates. These were clean, but the floors were very dirty. We also noticed that the food was not kept covered, and there were a lot of flies about. So, we decided not to stay in that hotel.
64. This hotel _____.
A) is not properly taken care of B) attracts a lot of visitors. C) serves excellent food. D) has a most interesting kitchen. E) was just the place we were looking for.
65. When we saw the kitchen _____.
A) it had just been cleaned. B) we were very pleased with the food. C) everything seemed to be in order. D) we were impressed by the variety of pots and pans. E) we knew this wasn’t the right place to stay.
66. The kitchen _____.
A) wasn’t clean enough. B) was in a separate building. C) had a bad smell. D) looked neat and tidy. E) was dirty except for the floors.
It was a fine Sunday in April. David and his sister, who were going to the zoo, crossed the main road and joined the queue at the bus stop. There were a lot of empty buses waiting by the side of the road. The drivers were standing about in groups talking and smoking. In the park nearby young mothers were with their children. There was someone selling balloons and someone else selling small cakes.
67. In the passage, we are given _____.
A) an account of the animals in the zoo. B) the reasons for the drivers’ strike. C) a description of a street one Sunday. D) a full description of the park near the bus stop. E) some advice on how to spend our Sundays.
68. David _____.
A) is taking his sister to the zoo. B) would rather spend the afternoon in the park. C) is going to buy a balloon for his sister. D) wondered why the buses were empty. E) wished his mother had also come along with them.
69. When David and his sister got to the bus stop _____.
A) they decided to play with the other children. B) there were no buses in sight. C) they began to talk to the drivers. D) there were a lot of people waiting for the bus. E) they bought some cake.
Fifty years ago, when I was a child, photographs were not of general interest. Photographs were taken of people on special occasions, at weddings and on birthdays, for instance. These pictures were usually kept in a box and brought out at intervals to show the family. Nowadays photography is regarded as an art. Many photographic exhibitions are held and there are many magazines dealing with the art of photography.
70. During recent years _____.
A) photography has become a popular form of art. B) a lot of people have taken photographs of good paintings. C) photography has stopped being an art. D) photographic exhibitions are often advertised in magazines. E) more and more people take photographs at weddings.
71. The passage compares _____.
A) public interest in painting today and fifty years ago. B) photographic exhibitions and painting exhibitions. C) wedding photographs and birthday photographs. D) photography today and photography fifty years ago. E) family photographs of today and fifty years ago.
72. When the writer was young _____.
A) he was very interested in photography. B) people didn’t think of photography as an art. C) he always took photographs on his birthday. D) people used to go to photographic exhibitions. E) he took a lot of family photographs.
From the end of the corridor I could hear them arguing. Liz said it was the best film she had seen on the television for over a year. Dick said it was dreadful. He said the story was poor and the acting terrible. Liz said he couldn’t recognize a good film when he saw one. “What film are you talking about?” I asked as I came into the room. ‘The film shown last Friday.”, said Liz. “The film shown last Thursday.”, said Dick. They looked at each other and we all laughed.
73. Liz _____.
A) hasn’t watched a film for over a year. B) enjoyed the film she saw on Friday evening. C) enjoyed the film even less than Dick. D) said the story was very poor. E) and I both enjoyed the film.
74. At the end of the passage we understand that _____.
A) Dick actually enjoyed the film very much. B) there are never any good films on television. C) Liz and Dick were talking about different films. D) Liz and Dick don’t like the same films. E) Dick didn’t want to agree with Liz.
75. Liz and Dick were arguing about _____.
A) a television film they had seen the previous week. B) the film they had just watched. C) whether they should watch the film that evening. D) which film they should watch. E) whether they had seen the film on Thursday or Friday.
There was no other building in sight. The trees which grew along the river completely hid the two other houses that shared the valley. Looking from the kitchen window Mary gave a long sigh of contentment. She knew she would be happy here; much happier that she had ever been in the city.
76. Mary is quite sure that _____.
A) the view from her kitchen is spoiled by the two other houses. B) she will enjoy living in the valley. C) her neighbors will dislike her. D) new houses will be built along the river. E) she will soon miss the life of the city.
77. The valley Mary is looking at _____.
A) is very near the city. B) overlooks a river. C) hasn’t been lived in for a long time. D) is a very pleasant one. E) is completely deserted.
78. The passage is not about _____.
A) the hardships of life in the city. B) Mary and her new home. C) Mary’s happy life in the valley. D) Mary’s escape from the city. E) the peace and beauty of the valley.
By the end of her first day at work Janet was terribly tired. She was also very happy, for she knew she had made a good beginning.  Mr. Taylor was clearly very pleased with the way she had answered his telephone and looked after his visitors. He had also praised her typing. ‘Tomorrow,” she thought happily, “it will be much easier.”
79. From the passage we understand that Janet _____.
A) hates her new job. B) is going to look for a new job. C) works as a nurse. D) is married to a businessman. E) is a secretary.
80. Mr. Taylor _____.
A) is afraid Janet will leave him soon. B) has known Janet for a long time. C) is a difficult man to work for. D) is fully satisfied with Janet. E) has not given Janet much work to do.
81. The passage describes _____.
A) Janet’s first day at work. B) why Janet is not pleased with her work. C) what kind of man Mr. Taylor is. D) how Janet was given her job. E) Janet’s plans for the future.
Dr. Maine advertised for someone to work as a receptionist at his dental clinic. He wanted someone who was cheerful and attractive and also willing to work on Saturdays. Several people applied for the job but, except for Jenny none were suitable. Jenny, however, was just what he wanted.
82. Dr. Maine _____.
A) is obviously, a very rich man. B) doesn’t get on well with people. C) knew what sort of person he needed for his clinic. D) works only on Saturday mornings. E) is himself a cheerful and attractive person.
83. Which of the following is a suitable TITLE for this passage?
A) Training to be a Dentist B) Dr. Maine and Others C) The Right Receptionist D) Working Hours E) Advertisements
84. Dr. Maine felt sure that _____.
A) nobody would want to work on Saturday. B) Jenny would be a good dentist. C) Jenny wouldn’t agree to work for him. D) Jenny was the right person for the job. E) all of those who applied would be suitable.
James has always been a practical sort of person; he has worked hard but not been able to save much. Though he had sometimes dreamed of being rich, he had never really expected to be so.  However, his dream came true when his uncle left him a fortune. Now that he has got so much money he is going to do all the things he has always wanted to do. To start with, he is going to visit Japan.
85.   James _____.
A) has often dreamed that he was living in Japan. B) has earned enough money to go to Japan. C) never wastes his money on holidays. D) became rich after his uncle’s death. E) has been lazy all his life.
86. The author carefully points out that _____.
A) everyone ought to work hard. B) one shouldn’t travel without a lot of money. C) practical people are never short of money. D) James has become rich through hard work. E) James has changed since he became rich.
87. James can go to Japan _____.
A) since he is a rich man. B) if he saves up enough money. C) provided he continues to work hard. D) where his uncle is expecting him. E) but he is not anxious to go just yet.
When the Deakins decided to move from the outskirts of London to central London they both thought they were doing the right thing. Mr. Deakin looked forward to less traveling and Mrs. Deakin to a much more interesting life and more friends. Before they had been there a month, however, they both started to miss their old house with its garden, and to wish they had never left it.
88. Soon after they had moved to central London _____.
A) they began to enjoy a more interesting life. B) Mrs. Deakin made a lot of friends. C) Mr. Deakin gave up his job in the outskirts of the town. D) they knew they had been right to make the move. E) the Deakins realized that they had made a mistake.
89. Before they moved to central London, Mr. Deakin _____.
A) was perfectly content with his life. B) was afraid he would find the city dirty and noisy. C) had wasted a lot of time traveling. D) began to travel less and less. E) thought he would miss his old house.
90. Mrs. Deakin _____.
A) soon regretted the move but her husband didn’t. B) has always lived in central London. C) has had a more interesting life than her husband. D) fully expected to enjoy living in central London. E) has never lived in a house with a garden.
“Cut your coat to suit your cloth.” is an old English proverb. Obviously it is not really talking about coats but is telling us to be content with what we have got. It’s a good proverb because so many people want what they cannot have, and this makes them discontented. Therefore they don’t enjoy the things they do have.
91. This proverb _____.
A) teaches us the real meaning of happiness. B) makes greed seem attractive. C) wants people to be discontented. D) is not very well known in England. E) shows us the importance of money.
92. People are happy _____.
A) if they are rich. B) unless they are badly dressed. C) because the proverb tells them to be. D) as long as they are satisfied with the things they have. E) when they can learn from proverbs.
93. The passage suggests that _____.
A) everyone is equally happy. B) a lot of people who should be happy are not. C) happiness depends upon possessions. D) proverbs are really useless. E) one should work hard to earn more.
 “James and I set off an hour before sunset when it was getting cooler and the shadows were long. We took it in turns to row the little boat and moved slowly, following the edge of the lake, and looking rather lazily about us for fish. We had no intention of catching any, but it was pleasant to watch them swim so close to us.”
94. In this passage _____.
A) we are told about the adventures of a couple fishing in a lake. B) the writer expresses a feeling of contentment. C) the writer describes the pleasure of catching fish at dawn. D) the writer’s intention is to describe the movements of fish in a lake. E) we see that the two friends are interested in catching a special kinds of fish.
95. The two friends _____.
A) woke up early and went fishing. B) got in their boat and rowed across the lake. C) were too lazy to row the boat together. D) took the boat out to enjoy themselves rather than to catch fish. E) stayed out in their boat until it was dark.
96. The writer and his friend enjoyed _____.
A) catching fish after it was dark. B) fishing late in the afternoon on a cool day. C) watching the setting of the sun on the lake. D) rowing together when the sun was setting. E) observing the movements of fish around their boat.
“John Fuller has really surprised us all. At school he seemed such a boring and ordinary boy. As far as I can remember, he made no close friends. I don’t think we actually disliked him, but we certainly ignored him. I would really like to meet him again now. It’s clear from his wonderful films that he must be a most interesting man.”
97. The writer _____.
A) is now one of John Fuller’s close friends. B) knew John Fuller would be a great man. C) has always been jealous of John Fuller. D) was at school with John Fuller. E) still believes that John Fuller has not changed at all.
98. The writer was surprised _____.
A) that John Fuller was no longer interested in him. B) to see how John Fuller had changed over the years. C) when he met his old school friend John Fuller. D) to learn that John Fuller had become rich by making films. E) to find that at school John Fuller had always hated him.
99. Which of the following TITLES would be suitable for this passage.
A) An Unexpected Meeting B) John Fuller’s Films C) No Longer Ordinary D) My Best Friend E) John Fuller: A Failure in Life.
Mr. Smith made a mistake when he gave his son Tom a camera. For soon Tom became so interested in photography that he began to neglect his school work. Soon a large part of his conversation was about photographs. When the newspapers came he examined the photographs first and said what was wrong with them, before starting to read the news.
100. Mr. Smith gave his son a camera _____.
A) because he had started to work for a newspaper. B) before he was particularly interested in photography. C) as a reward for working well at school. D) so that he would work harder at school. E) lest he neglected his lessons.
101. After he was given the camera, Tom _____.
A) stopped reading the newspapers. B) only read about the pictures in the newspapers. C) spent a lot of time on his homework. D) became one of the best students in his class. E) began to give much more time to photography than to his lessons.
102. Tom _____.
A) read the news first and then examined the photographs. B) always talked about his camera. C) talked about photography more than anything else. D) usually took beautiful pictures. E) had his pictures published in the newspapers.
Leslie comes from a big city. During the holiday she went to spend a week on her uncle’s farm. It was her first visit there. Her uncle, who was very pleased to see his niece, did his best to make her stay an enjoyable one. On the farm she rode a horse, fed chickens ran in the fields and ate fruit fresh from the trees. She enjoyed her holiday so much that, when the day for her to return to the city came, she was very sad to leave.
103. Leslie‘s _____.
A) holiday lasted for a week. B) parents often sent her to the farm. C) uncle left the farm and went to the city. D) greatest pleasure was to ride a horse. E) life on the farm was a very sad one.
104. Leslie _____.
A) hated the animals on the farm. B) visited her uncle’s farm once a week. C) thought life on the farm was extremely hard. D) thoroughly enjoyed her holiday on the farm. E) worked for her uncle on the farm.
105. Which of the following is the most suitable TITLE for this passage.
A) Horses and Chickens B) A Different Sort of Life C) Longing for the City D) An Uncle and His Spoiled Niece E) An Unpleasant Holiday
Occasionally during the night one can see meteors. They resemble streaks of light and for this reason are called falling stars. As meteors travel through space they sometimes fall into the Earth’s gravitational pull and the friction between these rocks and the atmosphere causes most of them to burn up before they reach the surface of the Earth. At times, however, very big pieces of meteors fall to Earth and although they are burned up to a large extent, some pieces do reach the surface. These are then called meteorites. The largest meteorite to have been founded is the Hoba meteorite. It was found in Nambia and weighs 60 tons.
106. Meteors that hit the Earth _____.
A) are known as meteorites. B) are called falling stars. C) are found in the Hoba. D) will land in Nambia. E) bum up due to friction.
107. The Earth’s atmosphere _____.
A) has many meteors in it but we cannot see them. B) prevents most meteors from falling into the Earth’s gravitational pull. C) and the friction it causes prevent many meteors from becoming meteorites. D) attracts the large falling stars to the Earth. E) is so hot that it burns up rocks easily.
108. Meteors are _____.
A) huge stars that travel in space. B) very large pieces of stone. C) able to easily land on Earth. D) always in their travel in our atmosphere. E) usually present in Nambia.
There are about 980 flying mammals referred to as bats. They are the only real flying mammals on Earth. Most bats feed on a diet of insects. Some feed on flowers and fruits, but the most interesting are the vampire bats of the Americas, which suck the blood of large birds and other mammals. Unfortunately, these vampire bats are capable of transmitting rabies and are for this reason considered dangerous. The other types of bats are of no danger to man and are even considered helpers of nature by way of their diet which helps control the insect population in various areas of the world. Although the misunderstood bat has represented fear and terror in the west, it is seen as a sign of good luck and long life in the east.
109. The majority of the bat population _____.
A) are vampires. B) transmit many illnesses. C) feed on a diet of insects. D) are dangerous to man. E) live in the Americas.
110. According to the passage the bat is misunderstood because _____.
A) it is capable of transmitting rabies. B) it has been associated with fear in the west. C) its value as a natural enemy of insects is not generally known. D) it is the only flying mammal. E) animals are endangered by most bats.
111. The insect population of the world _____.
A) is controlled by bats. B) represents fear and terror to bats of the east. C) is eaten by vampire bats. D) in some areas develops because of the influence of the bat. E) is maintained at normal levels because bats eat them, in certain areas.
In 1924 Thomas Watson Sr. changed the name of his company to International Business Machines. The company produced many types of electronic machines. In 1952, Watson’s son, Thomas Jr. became the head of the company and proceeded to manufacture their first computers. This first computer was produced for scientists. Many other forms of the computer were produced and in 1981 this firm marketed its first personal computer. Unfortunately, this world known and respected company, better known as IBM, is now like many other companies: in financial difficulty.
112. A good TITLE for this passage is _____.
A) Thomas Watson Sr. and Jr. B) Financial Difficulties C) IBM: Yesterday and Today D) The First Computer E) Electronic Machines
113. IBM’s first personal computer _____.
A) was manufactured for scientists. B) caused financial difficulties for the company. C) was created by Thomas Jr. D) was produced after other types of computers had been marketed. E) made the company world known.
114. IBM _____.
A) was the first company to produce personal computers. B) went bankrupt in recent years. C) belongs to a family of scientists. D) has been around since 1952. E) is the only company to produce personal computers.
Sumo wrestling is an extremely popular sport in Japan. The Sumo champions are extremely large men who are not only tall but also weigh 130 kilograms or more. The reason that these wrestlers are so big is that the object of the game is for one wrestler to either throw his opponent out of the ring or to force him to the ground. The larger a wrestler is, the greater his chances of winning a fight. These matches are usually very short, most lasting less than one minute.
115. Sumo wrestlers are extremely large _____.
A) because they must use their bodies against their opponents. B) because this is a Japanese sport. C) due to their great strength. D) so that they can object to their opponents. E) to force the ring to wrestle with him.
116. The length of these matches _____.
A) is very tall. B) takes only a moment or so. C) is about 13 kilograms. D) generally lasts under a minute. E) goes on until the bell rings.
117. To win the match _____.
A) one opponent must leave the ring. B) one large wrestler must give up his ground. C) the larger wrestler’s weight must be more than 130 kilos. D) the force of the larger wrestler is measured. E) one wrestler must prove his strength against the other.
Although all spiders kill their prey by injecting them with poison, only a few are dangerous enough to cause people or large animals any harm. The poison of the spider is injected by way of the pair of powerful fangs it possesses. Their venom is injected into its prey and for most insects and sometimes small animals, it is fatal. The most dangerous spiders are the black widow spiders. The European black widow can cause serious illness in a human victim whereas the North American black widow is known to have caused the death of people on several occasions.
118. Most spiders _____.
A) can cause the death of people. B) inject poison with their fangs. C) eat widow spiders. D) are found in Europe and America. E) are of the family of the black widow.
119. The venom of the spider _____.
A) will kill any animal. B) is powerful against fangs of insects. C) is deadly to most insects and small animals. D) effects large animals quicker than small. E) has human victims as well as others.
120. The black widow spiders _____.
A) are only dangerous when they are found in Europe.. B) are fatal to all. C) have poison in their venom. D) have a much stronger poison in their venom than other types of spiders. E) usually causes illnesses in Europeans.
Jesse Ownes was one of the world’s most famous track stars.  The newspapers of his day called him “the world’s fastest human.” This was because he could run faster and jump further than any other man of the time. He was born in 1913. The son of a poor black family with six other brothers and sisters, the first years of his life were very difficult. He was close to death many times during his youth, due to illness. However, the care of his mother and father helped him to pull through each time. He started running and training in school and while in college at Ohio State University he entered a national competition. During this competition he set four world records. In 1936, the Olympic Games took place in Germany. This was the Germany of Hitler who did not believe that any race of people was better than the Germans. Jesse won the gold medal for each of the events he entered during the games and became one of the most popular athletes in the world.
121. Hitler _____.
A) did not believe that his athletes could win the races. B) was in power when the 1936 Olympic Games were held. C) resented the people of the German race. D) had Jesse train at Ohio State University. E) allowed Jesse to enter the national competitions of the Olympic games.
122. Jesse Ownes’s _____.
A) was brought up in poverty. B) started to train for the Olympic games when he was a youth. C) started to run because his mother and father pulled him through. D) first competed in the Olympic Games. E) ran faster than anyone could jump.
123. According to the passage _____.
A) Jesse was the only black athlete to have obtained an Olympic medal. B) Jesse caused Hitler to worry about his athletes. C) Jesse was one of the world’s most popular athletes. D) Jesse is the only man to have set four world records. E) Jesse’s world records were a result of the care he got from his parents as a child.
Cosmetics have been used for thousands of years to improve the appearances of people and also to help keep them clean and healthy. We know that cosmetics were often used in ancient Egypt. Many beautiful jars and bottles which held oils and perfumes, have been found, and can be seen in museums. Men, in some primitive tribes and societies also paint their faces and bodies. This is usually done to show that they are of some high rank. Sometimes, however, it is used to show that the people of that group are taking part in some form of ceremony. Today, in our society, cosmetics are usually used to improve the appearance of people and to make them appear healthy. It is not difficult to obtain cosmetics today. Many are made cheaply from synthetic materials and vegetable oils.
124. Cosmetics have been _____.
A) made of synthetic fibers since ancient times. B) found in jars in museums. C) used for the body only in modem times. D) for ceremonies. E) used by people since ancient times.
125. Cosmetics not only make people look good but also _____.
A) help maintain health in our society. B) established the social rank of people. C) help maintain an appearance of health. D) can be used in place of vegetable oils. E) are placed in museums.
126. Egyptians used jars and bottles _____.
A) to hold both synthetic materials and vegetables. B) to give primitive tribes cosmetics to try out. C) to place into their museums. D) for both decoration and to hold their cosmetics. E) to help them with their cleaning.
When Christopher Columbus set sail in 1492 from Spain, his destination was not America. In fact, he did not even know that the huge American continents existed. His purpose in sailing west was to reach the Indies faster than other ships which used a route around Africa. The Indies were a source of riches for Europeans during those days. The treasures of spices, silks, etc. were greatly valued by Europeans but were extremely difficult to obtain. When Columbus reached the islands that are now known as the West Indies, he believed he had reached Asia and he called the people living there ‘Indians’.
127. In 1492 Columbus _____.
A) wished to go to America. B) started traveling towards Asia. C) traveled by way of Africa to Asia. D) wanted to become rich by sailing to America. E) was looking for the treasures of America.
128. Spices, silks and other treasures _____.
A) were found around the world. B) were taken to Asia to be sold. C) were from the West Indies. D) from Asia, were brought to Europe. E) from Spain, were taken to the Indies.
129. Columbus believed _____.
A) the destination for Europeans was Asia via America. B) Europeans should become rich. C) the riches of the West Indies were better than those of Asia. D) Spain could be reached via the Asian route. E) he was headed for India.
In order to make the first clock, man had to first divide the day into hours and minutes. The Babylonians were the first to divide the hour into 60 minutes and the minute into 60 seconds. The Egyptians created shadow clocks which later became sundials. Around 100 B.C. the first hourglass was used. These were usually timed for one hour. The Greeks and Romans later used water clocks which had been developed by the Chinese and were called clepsydras. The first mechanical clocks were developed in Europe in the 1300’s. These were improved and in 1656 a Dutchman designed the first pendulum clock, which was more accurate than the other clocks of the time. After World War 11 the atomic clock was developed and is still the world’s most accurate clock. The quartz crystal clocks and watches that were developed in the 1960’s and 70’s are also extremely accurate, second in accuracy to only the atomic clock.
130. The first clocks _____.
A) were made by the Babylonians. B) were based on a one hour schedule. C) could only be made after the day had been divided into time periods. D) were the clepsydras. E) cannot be considered a true clock.
131. Today _____.
A) the sundials of the Egyptians are used instead of the atomic clock. B) quartz crystals are much more dependable than the atomic clocks of WW II. C) mechanical clocks are used in Holland. D) hourglasses can be designed for up to one hour. E) historians think that the Babylonians are responsible for the trend towards measuring time.
132. The Chinese _____.
A) taught the Greeks how to tell time. B) learned how to tell time from the Greeks and Romans. C) used the same type of water clock as the Greeks and Romans did. D) preferred the clepsydras to mechanical clocks. E) used sundials before the Egyptians.
During the Gulf War the extent of the development of television and radio news broadcasting was very apparent. The CNN reporter Peter Arnett gave live coverage of the situation present in the capital city of Iraq, Baghdad. The telephone lines which were constantly open and full of minute by minute reportage of the events taking place, served as the main means of communication. Although they were not given complete freedom in the use of their television cameras, the scenes that they were able to show the world were viewed with interest and astonishment. The whole world was able to follow the events of the war as they took place, from their living room television sets.
133. The Gulf War was the first war in which _____.
A) the telephone was used by broadcasters. B) the world saw the events of a war on TV. C) there was moment by moment coverage of a war which was shown on television. D) the CNN reporter Peter Arnett was able to give coverage of a real war to television viewers. E) television cameras were used to show the results of a war.
134. According to the passage Peter Arnett was _____.
A) the only television reporter in Iraq during the war. B) was present in Iraq during the whole period of the war. C) telephoned in constant reports of what was going on. D) astonished the world with his reportage. E) the CNN reporter who told the world what was happening in the capital of Iraq.
135. According to the passage telephone lines _____.
A) were never cut off. B) served to give all the news. C) were used for broadcasting. D) always informing the world. E) were the only means of communication in the country.
The famous film star John Wayne’s real name was Marion Michael. Born in Iowa, USA on 26 May, 1907, he died on 11 June, 1979 in Los Angeles. John’s forty year film life included over 250 films. As he was seen as a strong, large man who was quiet but mature, his real name, Marion, did not suit his acting career.
136. John Wayne _____.
A) died at the age of 40 B) was famous for only western films. C) was born with the last name Marion. D) was a mature actor. E) was an American soldier.
137. His film career _____.
A) lasted for 250 films. B) was of war and western films. C) started in Iowa. D) depended on his actual name. E) lasted for forty years.
138. According to the passage his appearance _____.
A) did not appeal to his audiences. B) made people think of a man who was not suited to acting. C) was suitable for the roles of a confident leader. D) helped his audiences believe his roles. E) did not help his career.
What has caused the increasing popularity in the GREEN PEACE MOVEMENT during recent years? Is there a possibility that the public is being informed by scientists of dangers to the world, more than in the past? Or, is it possible that politicians are not hiding the facts that have been known to them but which have not been told before?  These factors probably have had an influence on the GREEN PEACE MOVEMENT, but the damage to nature can actually be seen by everyone today. It affects every society in all regions of the world. It is frightening and people are now starting to take a stand against industrialization and other developments which are destroying their lives and the future of their children.
139. This passage is about _____.
A) the GREEN PEACE MOVEMENT. B) mans constant interest in nature. C) new realizations made in all areas of the world about changes in nature. D) politicians and what they have not told us before. E) the societies which have effects that interest people.
140. The reason more and more people are becoming concerned with the world is _____.
A) because politicians are becoming more honest. B) due to the new information given to them by scientists. C) because people can see the damage to nature. D) due to the fact that they are worried about their children. E) because the GREEN PEACE MOVEMENT has taught them the new problems that exist.
141. The GREEN PEACE MOVEMENT _____.
A) is against people. B) wants to destroy nature. C) is fighting with politicians. D) is trying to prevent the loss of nature. E) is working to increase industrialization.
Mary was blind at birth. Doctors during those years had been unable to do anything to correct the situation and although her parents lived in anguish, not being able to see was normal for her. After years of training to live in a dark world, Mary got a job and moved into her own flat. Several years later the doctors she occasionally visited for check-ups told her that a new technique had been found. This technique could restore her sight. One would think that Mary would have jumped at the possibility to see, but actually she was not at all happy about this situation. She had never seen anything before. She had established a life for herself in a world without sight and the thought of changing this lifestyle was frightening. She was more frightened of seeing than of not.
142. The best TITLE for his passage is _____.
A) Living with Blindness B) Fear of Blindness C) The Desire to See D) A Biography of Mary E) Problems with Doctors
143. Being able to see was _____.
A) something Mary had not expected. B) what Mary wanted. C) a welcome surprise for Mary. D) what Mary was accustomed to. E) not necessary for our lives.
144. According to the passage, Mary’s inability to see was _____.
A) a handicap caused by her doctors. B) what had upset her. C) present when she has been born. D) what had caused her to move into her own flat. E) preventing her from a normal life.
The United Nations was created by a charter signed by delegates of 50 countries on 26 June, 1945. The headquarters of the UN is in New York City. Its official languages are Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. The UN is an international organization that works for world peace and security and for the betterment of all mankind. There are 6 major organs of the UN that carry on the work of the organization. These 6 major organs are: The General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the Secretariat.
145. According to the passage the charter of the United Nations _____.
A) was created in New York. B) established its existence. C) was for world peace. D) helped mankind. E) made the organs work better.
146. The main _____.
A) working units of the UN are made up of 50 countries. B) building of the UN is located in 5 different countries. C) language of the UN is based on 5 other languages. D) city for its functioning is New York City. E) building of the UN is located in New York City.
147. Representatives of most of the world’s countries _____.
A) decided to sign an agreement to work for the UN. B) established a multi-national headquarters. C) made the UN official. D) agreed to work together for peace and security in the world. E) disagreed about how many organs they needed.
Ballet dancers were originally all men. Women only began to appear in performances in 1681, in Paris. The encouragement of King Louis XIV of France is greatly responsible for the establishment of ballet as one of the major art forms it is seen as today.  Many young girls begin ballet lessons at the age of 5 or so and train for many years before they are good enough to perform. Most never do perform at all but the graceful movements and control of the body acquired by anyone who has ballet training, encourages parents to obtain at least several years of lessons for their young daughters.
148. Parents _____.
A) want their children to learn to be dancers. B) want their children to have graceful form. C) want their children to be able to control their bodies with grace. D) want their children to train for five years to perform. E) make their children learn to be a ballerina.
149. King Louis XIV _____.
A) encouraged and supported the art of ballet. B) assisted dancers to learn ballet. C) had graceful movements and body control. D) supported ballet so he could take lessons. E) made women dance with men during ballet performances.
150. Women _____.
A) performed ballet before men. B) did not perform in France. C) perform better than men. D) were not the original dancers. E) were supporters of Louis XIV.
The first confirmation of the existence of an ice continent at the South Pole was made by the Bellinghausen expedition of 1820.  This expedition was made for Imperial Russia.  In 1959, the Antarctic Treaty was signed by 17 nations.  This treaty protects the continent from territorial claims by any other country and maintains it as a continent set aside for scientific studies.  This natural laboratory has many research bases on it, set up by various countries of the world.  Most of these, work together to obtain information, for scientific study.
151. Antarctica is used _____.
A) by the Russians. B) as a military base. C) by various countries of the world for their own use. D) by only 17 nations. E) to establish territorial claims.
152. The Antarctic continent was _____.
A) first discovered in 1820. B) protected from scientists. C) a possession of Imperial Russia. D) a part of the Bellinghausen expedition. E) owned by the Russians.
153. The Antarctic Treaty _____.
A) protects the continent from further expeditions. B) was signed at the North Pole. C) was prepared by the Bellinghausen expedition. D) was prepared in 1959. E) protects it from any country that might want to claim it as their own.
The child followed his grandmother into the garden. As they walked slowly towards the little building in the back the child heard strange noises and suddenly stopped. The grandmother turned and laughed warmly at her grandson’s frightful expression. He had never been this close to animals before and was too young to recognize the sounds he heard. She handed him the bowl she had been carrying in her hand and picked him up. In the safety of her arms he relaxed and together, they entered the coop to feed the chickens.
154. The child was frightened of _____.
A) the building at the back of the garden. B) the animal noises from the coop. C) the chickens. D) his grandmother’s laughter. E) the bowl in his grandmother’s hands.
155. The grandmother picked up her grandson _____.
A) so that she could walk quicker. B) to reassure him. C) so he would not run away. D) because he could no longer walk. E) to show him the coop.
156. They were going _____.
A) to feed the chickens. B) to relax in the garden. C) to take some exercise. D) to see what the noise was about. E) to get the bowl.
One of the most magnificent touristic sights in the Black Sea region of Turkey is the Sumela Monastery. The white walls of the monastery stand out sharply from the one thousand-foot cliff which it was carved out of. It is a seven-storey complex which was carved into the walls of the cliff. Monks had lived in the caves of this cliff for hundreds of years before it reached its final form. It was abandoned in 1923 and left to waste for decades.
157. The Sumela Monastery is unique because _____.
A) it is 7 storey. B) it has 7 different tales told of its origin. C) it is located in the Black Sea. D) it is one thousand feet tall. E) it was not built on the cliff but in it.
158. It has decayed because _____.
A) no one has resided there for many years. B) the monk’s don’t live there. C) the caves are not as good as they were. D) tourists don’t want to see it. E) it is situated in an unusual place.
159. The monks _____.
A) used to hide in its 7 floors. B) lived in its caves. C) preferred the cliffs. D) did not want to climb the cliffs. E) used it as a place of worship.
After finishing school they got jobs working together at a medical school hospital which their university had been affiliated with. The four years of intense training they had obtained made them suitable for positions not often given to new graduates. After a short in- service program they were assigned to their wards and began working with patients who had undergone major surgery. The new group of nurses proved to be excellent professionals. At the same time, they were able to maintain the close bonds of friendship that had developed between them before graduation.
160. The new nurses were trained _____.
A) in the hospital before they began to work. B) for four years in an intensive university program. C) for major surgery. D) to be professionals and to maintain their bonds. E) by the medical school.
161. Their training _____.
A) was better than that of other students. B) taught them to care about each other. C) took place in an affiliated school. D) was in their service position. E) was not usually given to new graduates.
162. The best TITLE for this passage is _____.
A) Training of Nurses. B) Graduation and the Nurse C) What They Did After School D) The New Professionals. E) A Job in the Hospital.
Algae are a group of plants that contain some of the largest and smallest life forms known. Most Algae are made of one cell and can only be seen under the microscope. Other types can grow over forty meters long. An example that is known to most people is brown seaweed. One of the most important groups of algae is plankton. Many sea animals form their diet of this plant and the natural balance of sea life would be greatly disturbed without it.
163. Algae is _____.
A) only seen under the microscope. B) has many important uses. C) both one of the largest and smallest forms of life. D) an example of seaweed. E) is eaten by fish in order to maintain a balance in nature.
164. Plankton is _____.
A) a group of important plants. B) known to most people. C) one of the major diets of fish. D) a form of sea life balance. E) a form of disturbance to sea life.
165. Without algae _____.
A) many plants would not exist. B) a microscope would not be necessary. C) seaweed could have better coloring. D) all fish would starve. E) the balance of nature would be destroyed.
Styles of cooking have changed a great deal over the last few years. Elaborate sauces and rich desserts are being replaced with simple, low cost foods.  The fast paced life style of our world today has limited the amount of time people have to prepare meals. Along with this, the astronomical prices of gourmet, five course meals have made it impractical for most families. Reasons of health also seem to play a major part in the changes in food preference. Fresh, low-cost, locally available ingredients make much more sense for people who wish to maintain their health, vitality and proper weight.
166. People these days are paying more attention _____.
A) to their health. B) to how they prepare well meals. C) to how elaborate sauces are made. D) to astronomical gourmets. E) to what families want to eat.
167. Five course meals are _____.
A) not very practical to the modem family. B) low cost and healthy. C) a vital and healthy. D) easily available. E) easily prepared in limited time.
168. Modern families prefer _____.
A) low cost, fresh foods. B) non healthy, vital foods. C) gourmet foods. D) limited meal times. E) locally available gourmet produce.
The rose is the first thing that comes into the minds of most people when they hear the word flower. The rose has been known throughout the Northern Hemisphere as far back as literature records. The name for the rose is almost the same in every European language. But the Europeans are not the only people to have given this flower importance. Writers and poets of ancient civilizations such as the Persians and Chinese also praised the flower. Dried roses have even been found in Egyptians tombs.
169. The rose _____.
A) is a flower that has been known to only a few lucky civilizations. B) has been written about on Egyptian tombs. C) is the first flower known to people. D)    has been treasured by all civilizations. E) can be found in only certain areas of the world.
170. We know that ancient civilizations prized the rose because _____.
A) the Persians wrote about it. B) poets have praised it. C) the Egyptians buried them. D) nor-them writers mention it. E) it is referred to in the earliest forms of literature.
171. The best TITLE for this passage is _____.
A) A Rose by Any Name B) Roses and Man’s History C) The Universal Flower D) The Ancients and the Rose E) Literature and Roses
Good students usually have good study habits and know how to plan their time efficiently. Some find it helpful to draw up a five or six day program each week and plan what they will do when. Of course one cannot always keep to such a plan; unexpected things often happen but even the making of such a plan forces us to think about what we ought to do during the week and this is the first step towards doing it.
172. A weekly study program can be very useful _____.
A) after good study habits have been established. B) but doesn’t lead to better study habits. C) so long as it isn’t very detailed. D) even if one doesn’t keep to it exactly. E) if one knows, it can’t be changed.
173. Good students _____.
A) only do what they ought to do and not what they want to do. B) waste a lot of time thinking about what they ought to do. C) owe their success to good study habits and careful planning of their time. D)    take five or six days to do what they could do in two or three days. E) can’t plan their time efficiently without someone to help them.
174. One advantage of drawing up a work plan for the week is that _____.
A) we realize that a lot of work we do is unnecessary. B) unexpected problems can be avoided. C) we can give ourselves two whole free days. D) it reminds us of what we have to do during the week. E) we soon grow used to working at regular times.
Many people who have to start the day early find it difficult to wake up properly. For some of them the solutions is very straightforward: they drink two cups of coffee and the feelings of the fatigue disappear. This is the effect of caffeine; one of a family of stimulants found not only in coffee but also in such drinks as tea, cola and cocoa. Taken in reasonable amounts, the stimulating chemical may help some people to work more efficiently.  However, excessive quantities can cause several irritating, unhealthy side effects. Studies show, in fact, that more than two cups of coffee a day can cause unpleasant symptoms such as nervousness, irritability, stomach pain and insomnia.
175. The passage suggests that it is inadvisable for one to _____.
A) drink any tea, coffee or cocoa at all. B) drink more than two cups of coffee a day. C) start the day without a stimulant of some sort. D) use any other stimulant but caffeine. E)    drink less than one cup of coffee.
176. Caffeine and other similar stimulants _____.
A) can produce certain unpleasant side effects, if large doses are taken. B) are completely harmless. C) always have a negative effect upon people. D) actually never lead to improved work efficiency. E) are so useful for health.
177. The passage points out that many people begin the day with two cups of coffee _____.
A) even when they don’t feel sleepy. B) because by doing so they soon feel wide awake. C) because there is less caffeine in coffee than in tea. D) if they know the day ahead is likely to be an irritating one. E) because alcohol is more harmful.
Like so many other materials in Japan, paper too has come in for many hundreds of years of artistic consideration. At one period of the country’s history, the paper on which a poem was written was as important as the, poem itself. A thousand years ago there were whole towns actively engaged in making paper. Such towns still exist, but there were also many farming villages which then, as they do today, made paper to earn extra income during the winter. At present, about half of Japan’s farmers must add to their incomes with winter jobs. Although a large amount of winter employment is provided by construction companies, some farmers continue to work at such cottage industries as paper-making.
178. It is obvious from the passage that the art of a paper-making in Japan _____. A) was such a trivial work. B) has disappeared owing to industrialization. C) was of no economic value at all in the past. D) was only practiced by the peasants in the country. E) has a long history.
179. The passage emphasizes that approximately fifty per cent of the farming population in Japan _____.
A) is not satisfied with current farming policies. B) prefers town life to village life. C) engages in a secondary occupation in the winter. D) plans to give up farming and go into construction work. E) were poor people.
180. It is suggested that paper-making _____.
A) encouraged the development of poetry in Japan. B) is still one of Japan’s cottage industries. C) has never been a significant commercial interest in Japan. D) has seldom been regarded as an art by the Japanese. E) and construction are the two major areas of employment in Japan.
When Queen Victoria died in 1901, the world was entering a new and exciting period of change. For instance, in that year, for the first time, wireless signals had crossed the Atlantic and, in the following year, an airship flew from Europe to America. Already the motor car had come into use and was making life much easier. Telephones, also, were becoming fairly common. Politically and economically, people looked forward to a time of peace, wealth and progress. In fact, nothing seemed to stand in the way of such a future.
181. It is obvious from the passage that the twentieth century _____.
A) opened with a decline in industrial and economic activity. B) inherited, from the previous century, very many serious social and political problems. C) began in a spirit of hope and confidence which was more or less world-wide. D) was ushered in by a wave of despair and discontent. E) introduced a period of economic and political unrest.
182. At the beginning of the twentieth century, people _____.
A) were still not fully aware of the benefits of the telephone. B) believed that technological and economic progress could not be halted. C) preferred to make their long distance journeys by airship. D) were extremely upset by the death of Queen Victoria. E) felt ill at ease in the face of so much change.
183. From the passage one can conclude that at the turn of the new century _____.
A) the drawbacks of industrialization became evident. B) it seemed that nothing more could be invented. C) progress and change were to be seen on every side. D) Technological progress was hampered by an economic crisis. E) The main emphasis was on improved communications.
There can be few more depressing stories in the entire history of man’s exploitation of nature than the wide-spread destruction of whales. Whales have not only suffered untold cruelty but now face total extermination. Already entire populations have been wiped out, and the only reason why no species has yet been finished off is due to the vastness and inaccessibility of the oceans. Hence, a few have always managed to escape, but how much longer can this go on?
184. The author points out that of all the animals in nature it is probably the whales that _____.
A) have aroused most sympathy among ordinary people. B) have attracted the least scientific attention. C) alone can survive man’s hunting instincts. D) have suffered most from man’s cruelty. E) can finally avoid total extinction.
185. According to the passage, if whales have so far survived, it is because _____.
A) they have taken refuge in the vast expanses of the oceans. B) they breed fast and are difficult to catch. C) modem man has recognized the need to preserve them. D) various measures have been taken to save them from total extermination. E) man has finally realized that nature must not be exploited.
186. In the passage the author expresses his doubts about whether _____.
A) many species of whales ought to be preserved. B) the exploitation of nature can be justified. C) whales can actually survive in the future. D) man really is as cruel to whales as some people have claimed. E) there is any point in trying to preserve all species of animals.
It is to be expected-that, by the year 2050, people’s eating habits will have changed beyond recognition. With a world-wide growth in population very many new mechanical and scientific methods will come into being, to step up food production. There may well be an end to food as we know it today. In fact, meals, as we know them, may become a thing of the past. Food constituents and vitamins may be taken in the form of capsules, tablets and pills. The thought of these highly artificial food constituents replacing present day foods may not be very relishing, but they may be the answer to food shortage and world famine.
187. It is suggested in the passage that, at a not too distant date, _____.
A) the world will face severe famine. B) the rate of growth in the world population will have been slowed down. C) the world’s food production will decline tremendously despite the population growth. D) methods of advertising food products will change drastically. E) our traditional eating habits will have been completely replaced.
188. The author points out that artificial food _____.
A) will unfortunately be deficient in vitamins. B) can be economically and easily produced. C) is not practical but it is delicious. D) may provide a solution to the problem of a world food shortage. E) will appeal greatly to the majority of people.
189. The main point emphasized in the passage is that _____.
A) present-day eating habits must be preserved. B) in the twenty-first century the wide-spread use of artificial food will be inevitable. C) famine and food shortage in the world can only be overcome by reducing the population growth rate. D) artificial foods need not conflict with traditional eating habits. E) mechanical and scientific methods are indispensable for the production of vitamins.
There is nothing that man fears more than the touch of the unknown. He wants to see what is reaching towards him, and to be able to recognize or at least classify it. Man always tends to avoid physical contact with anything strange. In the dark, the fear of an unexpected touch can lead to panic. Even clothes give insufficient security: it is easy to tear them and pierce through to the naked, smooth, defenseless flesh of the victim. All the distances which men create round themselves are dictated by this fear. They shut themselves in houses which no one may enter, and only there they feel some measure of security. The fear of burglars is not only the fear of being robbed, but also the fear of something touching you in the darkness.
190. According to the passage, what frightens people most is _____.
A) the thought of being robbed at night. B) the unexpected contact with something unknown. C) a sense of insecurity. D) being alone in the dark. E) the knowledge that they won’t be protected.
191. Because people are frightened of the unknown _____.
A) they feel it necessary to put a barrier between themselves and the unknown. B) it is natural that they should always be in a state of panic. C) they feel safer in a crowd. D) they try to avoid physical contact of all kinds. E) burglars find it much easier to break into houses.
192. This passage is concerned with _____.
A) how people can regain a sense of security. B) the measures people are advised to take against burglars. C) the three main types of fear. D) people’s fear of the unknown and how they try to cope with it. E) how to bring one’s fears into the open.
Public libraries, maintained by the local authorities, are well developed and progressive, and everywhere allow people to borrow books without charge. The books in the lending section are always kept on open shelves, and library staffs are very helpful in getting books on request from other libraries through the exchange system. Most libraries report an increase in borrowing over the past few years, so television does not seem to be stopping people from reading, as it was feared that it would.
193. It is explained in the passage that any book which is not available in one library _____.
A) won’t be available at any library B) can be brought from another C) discourages people from using libraries D) spoils the whole lending system of the public libraries E) should be reported to the librarian
194. As pointed out in the passage, people nowadays _____ .
A) prefer entertaining television programs to reading B) are using public libraries more than they used to in the past C) read a lot but don’t use the libraries much D) complain a great deal about the poor services the libraries are offering E) are using the exchange system less and less frequently
195. The passage gives us the impression that public libraries ____ .
A) charge more than is necessary for the services given B) are no longer receiving any financial support from local authorities C) are working extremely efficiently at present D) do not cooperate with each other at all E) are understaffed and poorly equipped
Fahrenheit is the system of measuring the temperature, how hot or cold something is, used by many people in Britain. The freezing point of Fahrenheit is 32 degrees. So a cold winter’s day in Britain would have a temperature of 38 F (3 centigrade), and a hot summer’s day would have a temperature of 90 F (32 centigrade). The Fahrenheit scale was invented by the German scientist Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1710. Today in Britain most people over twenty-five know the Fahrenheit scale but the centigrade system (Celsius) is being used more and more. Weather forecasts on television and in newspapers show temperature in both scales.
196. It is explained in the passage that the term “Fahrenheit _____.
A) has retained its popularity among young people B) is very rarely used in Britain today C) refers to the scale of temperature between 32 and 90 D) is never used in weather forecasts E) derives from the name of a German scientist
197. It is implied in the passage that in the long run, the Celsius system _____.
A) will be remembered only by the elderly B) will soon fall into disuse C) seems likely to be favored by newspapers but not by television D) will replace the Fahrenheit one E) will improve and become more reliable
198. The passage deals with _____.
A) two different systems of measuring the temperature B) the advantages of the Fahrenheit scale over the Celsius scale C) the scientific research carried out by Gabriel Fahrenheit D) the range in temperature to be found in the British isles E) the declining popularity of the Celsius scale in Britain
The Falklands are a group of small islands in the South Atlantic close to Argentina, with a population of 1,200 British citizens. They have been British territory since 1892. Disputes about who owns the islands go back to the eighteenth century. Argentina has long claimed that these islands, which they call the Malvinas, belong to them. They occupied the islands in April 1982 and the Falklands War lasted until July 1982 when British forces won them back. The Falklands War had an enormous impact on Britain and is still controversial. Some people see it as a restoration of Britain’s old imperial power.
199. It is pointed out in the passage that both Britain and Argentina _____.
A) were reluctant to start the Falklands War B) regard the Falklands as their own territory C) realize that these islands are of no importance to anyone D) prefer to use the name ‘Malvinas’ for these islands E) only laid claim to the islands after 1982
200. According to the passage, the Falklands War _____.
A) was being fought, on and off, between 1892 and 1982 B) was largely ignored by the British public C) showed how right Argentina was in claiming the islands D) was followed by a withdrawal of most British citizens from the islands E) broke out after the islands were invaded by Argentina
201. One may conclude from the passage that, even today, Britain’s hold over the Falkland Islands _____.
A) is regarded as politically and economically unnecessary by everyone in Britain B) could, in all likelihood, lead to another war between Britain and other powers C) causes more problems than benefits to the British public D) is felt by some people to be a continuation of the British imperial rule E) has not been accepted anywhere but in Argentina

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